Third Reich Day by Day: October 1933

The Nazis gained power via the ballot box, and some political dealings. But once in power Hitler quickly consolidated his control over the German state. New laws were introduced giving him dictatorial power, their passage made easier by the Reichstag fire in February. From then on, Nazi Germany became a centrally controlled totalitarian regime.


Germany, Treaties

Hitler takes Germany out of the League of Nations. Germany has been a member of the league since 1925, but it has always been regarded by many nationalists as an agency of the Allied powers and an enforcer of the hated Treaty of Versailles.

1 October

Germany, Legal

Reich Entailed Law stabilizes small firms.

14 October

Germany, Parliament

The Reichstag is dissolved.

27 October

Germany, Leisure

On a visit to Italy in 1929 Dr Robert Ley had been impressed by the fascist Dopolavoro (After Work) Organization, and on his return plans for a German equivalent were formulated. It was launched at a joint Italian German ceremony at Koblenz, although a formal press announcement was not made until November 17, when it was referred to as Nach der Arbeit. Shortly thereafter the name was changed to “Strength through Joy”. It was the opportunity to travel which caught the public imagination. To visit theatres, to own a car, or to holiday abroad were, before Hitler, a daydream for the average German worker. Ley was determined to make them a reality, and to a large extent he succeeded. Although principally associated with leisure and travel, the organization also included a “Beauty at Work” office under a then little-known architect called Albert Speer. The function of this office was to enhance the interiors and exteriors of workplaces, improve their amenities, ensure good ventilation and adequate light, and generally make the factory or workplace a more pleasant and agreeable place in which to work.