Final Solution, Poland
The Nazis are ‘clearing’ the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto. Over 50,000 Jews have been killed by poison gas or sent to concentration camps. The SS (Schutzstaffel - protection squad), a fanatical Nazi military and security organization, is chiefly responsible for Nazi persecution of the Jews and others deemed to be ideological or racial enemies of the Third Reich.
Adolf Hitler dismisses Field Marshal Wilhelm List, commander of Army Group A laying siege to Stalingrad, for criticizing his Eastern Front strategy. General Paul von Kleist replaces him.
Sea War, Atlantic
The liner Laconia, carrying 1800 Italian prisoners and Allied service families, is sunk by U-156. A US bomber attacks U-156 while it tries to aid the survivors. As a result, German navy chief Admiral Karl Doenitz instructs U-156 to cancel the rescue. In future, no lifesaving attempts will be made by U-boats after an attack.
At the Battle of Bloody Ridge, 6000 Japanese try to seize Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, but are repulsed.
Sea War, Pacific
Two Japanese submarines intercept a carrier force escorting troop transports to Guadalcanal. The US carrier Wasp and a destroyer are lost, but the troop transports arrive safely.
General Franz Halder, chief of the General Staff, is replaced by General Kurt Zeitzler. Halder has made the mistake of criticizing Adolf Hitler’s Eastern Front strategy, which demands that German troops should not retreat.