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Why did the geography of Norway both aid the attacker and defender?
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Norway is an elongated, rugged country, whose major population centres are located on its coastline. This ruggedness favours the defence, but only if it is speedily and properly organised. Conversely, as the Norwegians discovered to their cost, the same feature lays the defence open to defeat in detail because of the scarcity of communications between the separated and exposed centres of population. This disadvantage is compounded if, as happened in April 1940, an attacker achieves surprise.